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Scientific Giants in History

Here I have assembled a compilation of the best and brightest in recorded history listed in chronologic order by birth year.  Most links are to the world wide free encyclopedia, yet in some cases the links are to other more detailed sources.

I have wanted to create a list like this for a long time to make it easy to see at a glance what I have always had to look up from multiple sources.  The wonderful thing about the Internet is that it allows millions of people to get access to information that has been organized according to individual needs and unique requirements like the list I have prepared below.

Like the old saying goes: If you can't find the book you are looking for, write it yourself.  In this case, I simply made a list of well known scientists in chronological order by birth year, yet as simple a list as it is, it helps the reader to see where these Scientific Giants in History were in the timeline of history.  Better yet, with a single click you have the full history of each one.  

I will be adding more Giants of History in the future...  :)  Bear in mind that even though I may create a list of many hundreds of people, I am humbled by the vast histories the rise and fall of great civilizations who evidently had great scientist in their time and place.  How could I make a list of them all?  in the mean time, enjoy....                                                           Return to Internal Library

  1. Thales of Militus (624-546)BC
  2. Pythagoras  (569-475)BC
  3. Socrates (470-399)BC
  4. Plato (427-347)BC
  5. Aristotle (384-322)BC
  6. Euclid (330-275)
  7. Archimedes (287-212)BC hydraulics, mechanics, geometry
  8. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (80/70 BC - 25 BC)
  9. Hypatia (350 AD - 415)
  10. Avicenna Abū Alī al-Husayn ibn Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā (980 - 1037) medicine, physics
  11. Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (1031 - 1095) Compass, magnetics, etc.
  12. Roger Bacon (1214-1292)- magnifying glass
  13. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) Architect and Geometry
  14. Johann Gutenberg (c1390s-1468)  the printing press
  15. Leonardo Di Vinci (1452-1519)
  16. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)  heliocentric theory of the solar system
  17. Paracelsus (1493-1541)  alchemist, physician, astrologer,
  18. William Gilbert (Gilberd) (1544-1603) physics, magnetics, electricity
  19. Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) Astronomer and Alchemist
  20. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) philosopher, statesman, essayist
  21. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) physicist, astronomer, philosopher
  22. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) mathematics, astronomer, planetary motion
  23. Cornelius Drebbel (1572-1633)- first navigable submarine
  24. Willebrord Snellius (1580-1626) Astronomer, Mathematician, Refraction
  25. John Amos Comenius (1592 - 1670) Scientist, Teacher, Reformer
  26. René Descartes (1596-1650) philosopher, mathematician, scientist
  27. Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) scientist, inventor, and politician
  28. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) mathematician, physicist, religious philosopher
  29. Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)  mathematician, astronomer and physicist
  30. John Locke (1632-1704) Philosopher, Statesmen, Politician, Physician
  31. James Gregory, (1638-1675)  Astronomer, mathematician
  32. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
  33. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716),  physics, technology, medicine, etc.
  34. Stephen Grey (1666-1736)  Electricity and Astronomy
  35. John Hadley (1682-1744) - inventor of the sextant
  36. John Theophilus Desaguliers (1683 – 1744) Philosophy, Mechanics
  37. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736 )  Physicist
  38. Pieter (Petrus) van Musschenbroek (1692 -  1761) "Leyden Jar"
  39. François-Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1778) Physics and Philosphy
  40. Charles François de Cisternay du Fay (1698-1739)  electricity "vitreous"/ "resinous"
  41. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)  Hydraulics, aerodynamics
  42. Thomas Godfrey (1704-1749) - also invented the sextant
  43. Emilie du Châtelet  (1706-49)  Extraordinary Woman of Science
  44. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  45. Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783)mathematics, mechanics, physics, philosophy
  46. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (1725-1804) -automobile
  47. Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) experiments in electricity and chemistry
  48. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) mechanics,electricity, magnetism
  49. James Watt (1736-1819)  Steam Engine,  power
  50. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)  - Bioelectricity and electrochemistry
  51. Montgolfier Brothers (1740-1810) and (1745-1799) - hot-air balloon
  52. Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) Electricity and Physics
  53. Robert Symmer (1759?)  electrical theorist
  54. Samuel Morey, (1762-1843) - internal combustion engine
  55. Eli Whitney (1765-1825) the cotton gin
  56. Thomas Young (1773-1829)  Young's Modulus,  Translated Rosetta Stone
  57. André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836)  Electromagnetism, electric current
  58. Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) Moral and Aesthetic Philosophy
  59. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)  profound genius, geometry, magnetism
  60. Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) inventor of modern chemical notation,
  61. Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864)  first person to fractionate petroleum by distillation
  62. William Sturgeon (1783 -1850) Electromagnets
  63. Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788-1827)  Wave Optics
  64. Georg Ohm (1789-1854)  proportionality of current and voltage
  65. John Frederic Daniell (1790 - 1845)  Chemist, Electric Batteries
  66. Michael Faraday (1791-1867)  electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
  67. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791-1872)
  68. Charles Babbage (1791-1871)  [Link2-Difference Engine]
  69. Joseph Henry (1797-1878) Electromagnetics, telegraphy
  70. John Stringfellow (1799-1883) - airplane
  71. János Bolyai (1802-1860)- discoverer of non-Euclidean geometry
  72. Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) telegraphy, electricity, physics
  73. Johann Christian Andreas Doppler (1803-1853) Physicist, Frequency/wavelength
  74. Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) nitrogen-based fertilizer
  75. Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891)  Physicist, Magnetic Flux
  76. Louis Braille (1809-1852) the Braille writing system
  77. Elisha Otis (1811-1861) passenger elevator
  78. Sir William Robert Grove (1811 -1896) First Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  79. Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811 -1899)  spectroscopy, Chemistry, Geology, Mineralogy
  80. Anders Jonas Ångström (1814-1874)  Spectroscopy, magnetism
  81. Ernst Werner von Siemens (1816-1892)  Electromote "first electric trolly"
  82. James Prescott Joule (1818 -1889) Thermodynamics, magnetism
  83. Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (1819-1868) Foucault Pendulum, Gyroscope
  84. Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol (1819-1885) - steam powered submarine
  85. Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (1819-1896)  Capacitor , Doppler effect
  86. Sir George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) Fluid Dynamics and Optics
  87. Carl Wilhelm Siemens (1823-1883) regenerative furnace, electric pyrometer
  88. William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824-1907) electricity, thermodynamics
  89. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)  theoretical physicist - electromagnetism
  90. Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) - Dynamite
  91. Wilhelm Holtz  (1836-1913)    [link-2]
  92. Karl Benz (1844–1929) - Automobile, gasoline internal combustion engine
  93. Theophil Odhner (1845-1903) -Arithmometer mechanical calculator
  94. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) - Xrays
  95. George Westinghouse, Jr. (1846-1914)
  96. Edwin J. Houston (1847–1914)  [Link2-Partner to Elihu Tompson, electrotheraputics]
  97. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  98. Thomas Edison (1847-1931)
  99. Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918)-cathode-ray tube oscilloscope
  100. Edward Weston (1850 -1936)  -  "Weston Cell" battery
  101. Irving Langmuir (1851-1957) gas filled light bulb, hydrogen welding
  102. David Schwarz (1852-1897) rigid ship, later called Zeppelin
  103. Elihu Thomson (1853-1937)  - Electrostatic Motor
  104. Miksa Déri (1854-1938) - co-inventor of transformer
  105. Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856-1915)
  106. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
  107. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894)
  108. Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913)- Diesel engine
  109. Max Planck  (1858–1947)
  110. Elmer R. Gates (1859-1923)  -Prolific inventor and behavior scientist
  111. Aurel Stodola (1859-1942)  steam and gas turbines
  112. Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1860–1930) - gyroscope-guided automatic pilot
  113. Emil Johann Wiechert (1861-1928)  - physicist, seismic wave mapping
  114. George Washington Carver (c1864 - 1943) Botanist, Chemist, Inventor
  115. H.G. Wells (1866-1946)
  116. Maria Skłodowska-Curie (1867-1934) - Madam Curie
  117. Wright brothers, Orville (1871-1948), Wilbur (1867-1912) powered aeroplane
  118. Jan Janský (1873-1921) -discoverer of blood types
  119. Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932) non-rigid airship and airplane
  120. Karl Jatho (1873-1933) Germany - first motorized airplane?
  121. Guglielmo Marchese Marconi (1874- 1937)
  122. Charles F. Kettering (1876-1958) invented automobile self-starter ignition
  123. Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
  124. Otto Hahn  (1879–1968) "The Father of Nuclear Chemistry and Founder of the Atomic Age"
  125. Robert Goddard, (1882-1945)
  126. Archibald Low (1882-1956) - Pioneer of radio guidance systems
  127. Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972)  helicopter
  128. Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah (1895-1935) solar power, cathode ray tube
  129. Percy Lavon Julian (1899 – 1975) Revolutionary Chemist
  130. Walter Houser Brattain (1902-1987) - Transistor  co-inventor
  131. John von Neumann (1903-1957) Von Neumann computer architecture
  132. J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)  - Director of Manhattan Project
  133. Arthur M. Young (1905-1995) - the Bell Helicopter
  134. Frank Whittle (1907-1996)  co-inventor of the jet engine
  135. John Bardeen, (1908-1991)  - Transistor , superconductor
  136. William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989)
  137. Alan Turing (1912-1954) the Turing machine - Logic system
  138. Gordon Gould, (1920-2005) - Invented the LASER
  139. Jack Kilby (1923-2005)  patented the first integrated circuit
  140. Erna Schneider Hoover (1926-)-computerized telephone switching system
  141. Jun-Ichi Nishizawa (1926-) - Optical communication system
  142. Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (1928-) Floppy disk (world record - for over 3,000 patented inventions)
  143. Carl Edward Sagan (1934-1996) - Astronomer Planetary Physicist
  144. Sumio Iijima (1939- ) - nanotubes
  145. Stephen William Hawking(1942-)
  146. William H. Dobelle (1943-2004) first functioning artificial eye
  147. Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (1947-2011) creator of C Program Language
  148. Robert Cailliau (1947-)  - World Wide Web
  149. Dean Kamen (1951-) - Invented the Segway HT scooter
  150. Tim Berners-Lee, (1955-) - World Wide Web

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Last modified: 05/07/13